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India Profile  »  Medical Tourism In India  »  Surgery in India  »  Prostrate Surgery

Prostrate Surgery

Prostrate Gland:

Prostate gland is an exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. Its main function is to store and secrete a clear, slightly basic fluid that constitutes up to one-third of the volume of semen. The prostate differs considerably between species anatomically, chemically, and physiologically. A healthy human prostate is slightly larger than a walnut. It surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam. The prostate gland represents the modified wall of the proximal portion of the male urethra and develops by the 9th week of embryonic life.

In older men, the prostate often enlarges to the point where urination becomes difficult. This is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia and can be treated with medication or with surgery that removes part of the prostate. The surgery most often used in such cases is called transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP or TUR). In TURP, an instrument is inserted through the urethra to remove prostate tissue that is pressing against the upper part of the urethra and restricting the flow of urine.

Prostrate cancer:
Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Cancer occurs when cells of the prostate mutate and begin to multiply out of control. These cells may spread (metastasize) from the prostate to other parts of the body, especially the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, erectile dysfunction and other symptoms.

Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. Often it is diagnosed during the workup for an elevated PSA noticed during a routine checkup. Sometimes, however, prostate cancer does cause symptoms, often similar to those of diseases such as benign prostatic hypertrophy. These include frequent urination, increased urination at night, difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, blood in the urine, and painful urination. Prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation. Advanced prostate cancer may cause additional symptoms as the disease spreads to other parts of the body. The most common symptom is bone pain, often in the vertebrae (bones of the spine), pelvis or ribs, from cancer which has spread to these bones. Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing leg weakness and urinary and fecal incontinence.

Prostate cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, occasionally chemotherapy, or some combination of these. The age and underlying health of the man as well as the extent of spread, appearance under the microscope, and response of the cancer to initial treatment are important in determining the outcome of the disease.

Benign prostatic enlargement
The prostate tends to grow as men get older. In some cases, it becomes large enough to put pressure on the urethra, causing problems with urination, such as incomplete emptying of the bladder or dribbling of urine. The condition is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is not cancer and there is no evidence that it leads to cancer. See the separate BUPA factsheet on Enlarged prostate for further information.

There are a range of treatments for BPH. This leaflet focuses on TURP, which is an operation to remove some or all of an enlarged prostate gland so that urine can flow more freely.

The TURP operation:
A TURP is usually performed under a general anesthetic so that the man is asleep and feels no pain throughout the procedure. Typically, no food and drink is allowed for about six hours before a general anesthetic. However, some anesthetists allow a few sips of water until two hours beforehand. Once the anesthetic has taken effect, the surgeon inserts a thin, tube-like telescope (a resectoscope) into the urethra. The resectoscope includes a camera and specially adapted surgical instruments. This allows the surgeon to see the prostate clearly. A wire loop attachment that carries an electric current is used to "chip away" at the prostate. The same instrument, with a different type of electric current, is used to stem any bleeding.

During the operation, the bladder is flushed with a sterile solution to remove the chippings of prostate tissue. A catheter is then inserted through the urethra into the bladder.

Complications are unexpected problems that can occur during or after the operation. Most people are not affected. The complications of this operation include excessive bleeding, a urinary tract infection or an unexpected reaction to the anaesthetic. It is also possible for too much water to be absorbed from the fluid used to flush the bladder during the operation. This can temporarily upset the balance of salts in the blood, which can be harmful, particularly for people who already have heart or kidney problems. The condition is sometimes known as TURP syndrome.

Rarely, it is also possible to develop a blood clot (known as a deep vein thrombosis or DVT) in the veins of the leg. This clot can break off and travel to the lungs to cause a blockage. In the majority of cases, this is treatable, but it can be a dangerous condition. People having surgery are routinely given medicines or compression stockings to wear during the operation to help prevent a DVT.

Radical prostatectomy
Radical prostatectomy is surgery that attempts to cure prostate cancer. It is used most often if the cancer is not thought to have spread outside of the gland

  • Radical retropubic prostatectomy: This is the operation used by most urologic surgeons (urologists). You will be either under general anesthesia (asleep) or be given spinal or epidural anesthesia (the same type of anesthesia often given to women during childbirth to numb the lower half of the body) along with sedation during the surgery. For this operation, the surgeon makes a skin incision in your lower abdomen, from the belly button down to the pubic bone. Some surgeons remove lymph nodes from around the prostate at this time. If any of the nodes contain cancer cells, which means the cancer has spread, they often will not continue with the surgery because it is unlikely that the cancer can be cured.

  • Radical perineal prostatectomy: In this operation, the surgeon makes the incision in the skin between the anus and scrotum (the perineum). This approach is used less often because the nerves cannot easily be spared and lymph nodes can't be removed. But it is often a shorter operation and might be an option if you don't want the nerve-sparing procedure or require lymph node removal. It also might be used if you have other medical conditions that make retropubic surgery difficult for you. It can be just as curative as the retropubic operation if done correctly.

  • Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP): Both of the surgical approaches above use an "open" technique, in which the surgeon makes a long incision to remove the prostate. A newer technique, known as laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), uses several smaller incisions and special long instruments to remove the prostate. It is beginning to be used more in the United States.

    Laparoscopic prostatectomy has some advantages over the usual open radical prostatectomy, including less blood loss and pain, shorter hospital stays (usually no more than a day), and faster recovery times. Still, LRP is a technically difficult operation. In experienced hands, LRP is thought to be as good as open radical prostatectomy, although it takes a bit longer to do. Because LRP offers very good lighting and magnification, it may offer greater precision and control than open radical prostatectomy.

    Prostrate Surgery in India: Apollo Hospitals
    Apollo's Institute of Urology has a sizeable and comprehensive programme. It has the first organ transplant registry in India. Apollo hospitals have the required expertise to treat the above diseases. Apollo's Department of urology specializes in the treatment of various problems. Apollo Hospitals are well-known for its expertise in all kinds of Prostrate Surgery. The Hospitals with their highly expert Surgeons are at par to international standards. Any kind of Prostrate Surgery is quite familiar a business in Apollo Hospitals.

    Other urological surgeries at Apollo include:

  • Major endoscopic surgeries for urinary obstruction
  • Urinary stone diseases
  • Flexible & rigid Uretero renoscopies
  • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy
  • Laparoscopic Nephrectomy
  • Laparoscopic Ureterolithotomy
  • Uro-oncology
  • Radical Cystectomy and Prostatectomy
  • Uro-dynamic evaluation (involving diagnosis of various bladder dysfunctions)
  • Neurogenic bladders and urinary incontinence
  • Diagnosis and management of impotence (including penile prosthesis implants)
  • Female Urology Minimally invasive procedures like Transvaginal Tape (TVT) for stress urinary incontinence
  • Paediatric Urology
  • Reconstructive Urology for complex Urethral strictures

    SPECIALITIES /PROCEDURES Hospital Stay Single Room
    (In US $)
    Twin Sharing
    (In US $)
    Medical Oncology
    1) Chemotherapy (Category A) Total 6 cycles 15 days interval 5 days cycle 12000 8400
    2) Chemotherapy (Category B) Total 6 cycles 15 days interval 2 days cycle 6800 5400
    3) Chemotherapy (Category C) Total 6 cycles 15 days interval 1 days cycle 5500 4500
    Radiation Oncology
    1) Palliative Radiation (Package for 2-3 weeks) OP 1000
    2) Extended Palliative Radiation (Package for 3-4 weeks) OP 1500
    3) Simple Curative Radiation (Multiple sites-Package for 6-8 weeks) OP 1900
    4) Complex Curative Radiation (Package for 6-8 weeks) OP 2500
    5) Chemotharapy / Dose 1 Day 500
    5) Whole Body PET-CT Scan OP 500
    Stereotactic Radiotherapy & Stereotactic Radiosurgery
    1) SRT (Package upto 4-7 weeks) OP 2500
    2) SRS (Malignant) OP 5500
    3) IMRT 1 Day 6500 5500
    Surgical Oncology
    1) Breast Cancer 3 Days 3300 2800
    2) Oral Cavity 7 Days 6000 4600
    2) Cervical
    3) Prostate Cancer
    Note : Above Prices do not include Chemo Drugs

    SPECIALITIES /PROCEDURES Hospital Stay Single Room
    (In US $)
    Twin Sharing
    (In US $)
    Endoscopic Surgery
    1) TURP / TUEVP 3 Days 3800 3000
    2) OIU (Optical Internal Urethrotomy) 1 Day 2200 1900
    3) BNI (Bladder Neck Incision) 3 Days 3000 2400
    4) Endopyelotomy 3 Days 3400 2700
    5) Radical Nephrectomy 6 Days 4900 3700
    6) TURB (Endoscopic) 3 Days 3400 2700
    7) Radial Protatectomy 10 Days 5100 4000
    8) Partial Penectomy 3 Days 2500 1900
    9) Total Penectomy 5 Days 4200 3300
    10) Bladder Biopsy Day Care 800 800
    11) Prostate Biopsy Day Care 800 800
    12) Vasectomy 1 Day 1600 1300


    • Prices are subject to change or withdrawal without notice.
    • These are indicative prices only and may vary depending on the conditon of the patient, at the time of admission.
    • Apollo will provide final estimates at the time of patient's admission.
    • Single room is well furnished with Bed, Sofa-cum-Bed for Companion, Cupboard, Medicine Drawer, TV, Telephone and Wi-fi facility for Internet access. Mobile phones are available on request.
    • Stay and food for one Companion with patient in a Single Room is included in the above packages.
    • Services like Mobile, Laundry etc. will be charged extra.
    • Post-stay outside the Hospital is at the personal expense of the patient and is not included in the above prices.
    • 1 US $ = INR 45 offers o whole list of best urologists in India. Log on to it to get the information regarding prostrate surgery, the diagnosis and the different forms of treatments.

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