Laparoscopic Surgery is a new alternative surgical technique to correct ailments to open surgery. It is also called keyhole surgery, as it requires cutting open two or more small openings to insert surgical instruments with video cameras to aid the surgeon to have a complete inner view and perform the operation. Many operations are performed in this surgical technique.
Medically, Laparoscopic surgery means surgery of the abdomen or pelvic cavity. It is a part of the endoscopy field. Since it is a minimally invasive technique. Small holes are made through which the Hopkins rod lens system is inserted to get a clear view of the operative area. The instrument is connected to a video camera and the fiber optic cable system. Other surgical instruments can be inserted through other tiny holes. A traditional 20 cm is avoided by this new technique, which requires 5mm to 15mm, two to five cuts to remove a gall bladder.
Pioneered by Georg Kelling in 1902, he performed the first laparoscopic surgery on a dog. Today Laparoscopic technique is used for the treatment of parietal defects such as groin hernia and incisional hernia, cancer and functional disease of the gut such as gastro-esophageal reflux, prolapsus and constipation.
This minimum invasive technique definitely reduces post-operative pain and speeds up recovery. It has been successful in minimizing wound infections and incisional hernias. It has also been proven successful in dealing with cancer especially cancer of the colon. Difficulty in handling the instruments in restricted working area as well as vision may give rise to complications such as a possibility in damaging surrounding organs and vessels.
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