The term Oncology is derived from the Greek word 'onkos' (which means bulk, or tumor) and 'logy' (which means the study of). Therefore, Oncology stands for the branch of medicine that deals with the study of cancer and its treatment. Physicians who specialize on Oncology and its treatment are called Oncologists.
Oncology involves surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy among other procedures. Some of the other methods that assist Oncological procedures are;
- CT scan
- Blood Testing
- Emission of Positron in Tomography
- Manipulation of Hormones
1) Radiation Oncology
Radiation Oncology is a particular type of treatment for cancer. In this, ionized radiation is used to control the unwanted growth of malignant cells. It is not a perfect cure for cancer. However, this method is effective in localizing the disease and temporary relief. The amount of radiation to be used is determined on the basis of the type of cancer and its stage.
Types of Radiation Oncology
a) Palliative Radiation
Palliative Radiation aims at improving the patient's quality of life. It is primarily used to control the symptoms in connection with localized tumors that cannot be removed surgically. This is used to provide relief to patients who suffer from pain or bleeding.
A patient treated with Palliative Radiation will be treated on the 1st, 7th and 21st days in a single month. The patient cannot consume any food after 8.00 pm on the night preceding the therapy. Each session takes 2-3 hours and requires the patient to be anestheticised. No pain is involved during the treatment.
b)Extended Palliative Radiation
In Extended Palliative Radiation the treatment is extended for a week (3-4 weeks). The procedure remains the same as above.
c)Curative Radiation (Simple & Complex)
Curative Radiation is given to patients who are treated with cancer. In this form of treatment, the concerned area is exposed to radiation without affecting the neighboring tissues. This method is very useful for patients who have leukemia or lymphatic cancer. The intensity of the radiation beams determine whether the Curative Radiation applied is simple or complex.
Side effects of Radiation Oncology
- Swelling and sores
- Fatigue or tiredness
- Loss of hair
- Dryness in the area (expose to radiation)
- Epithelial tissues may get damaged badly
Surgical Oncology deals with the surgical removal of neoplasms that are malignant in nature. This method is useful only when the cancer has not spread (metastasized) from the initially affected area to other areas.
Types of Surgical Oncology
Surgical Oncology is performed in the following cases:-
Breast cancer usually involves a lump in the breast involving a change in the constitution in the tissue of the breast. In fact, breast cancer has caused an alarming rate of mortality among women throughout the world.
The various methods to treat breast cancer are breast sparing surgery (in which only the cancer is removed), Mastectomy (in this almost the entire breast is removed along with the cancer), Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Hormone therapy and Biological therapy. Depending upon the stage of the cancer, the type of surgical treatment is determined. However, stages I, II, III A and IIIC needs surgery.
Cancer in the oral cavity falls under (subtype of) head and neck cancer. Oral cancer generally originates as a lesion in the affected oral tissue(s). The cancer is of various types. These are
- Salivary gland
- Sqamous cell carcinoma
- Gingiva (gums)
Being malignant in nature, the cancer spreads rapidly affecting the other tissues as well.
Oral Cancer is caused either by consumption of alcohol, tobacco (all forms) or by the Human Papillomavirus.
- Small lesion, lump or ulcer on the skin, tongue, mouth or lip
- The affected area changes coloration ( becomes dark or pale)
- Unbearable pain accompanied with a burning sensation
- Visible signs of a white patch (leukoplakia) or red patch (erythroplakia)
- Problem in moving the tongue and swallowing
- If the sores of the mouth do not heal within a couple of weeks
Treatment includes radiation therapy combined with surgery of the following:-
- Maxillectomy - (using orbital exenteration)
- Glossectomy - (total, hemi or partial removal of the tongue)
- Radical dissection of the neck
- Mandibulectomy - (a condition in which the mandible or lower jaw is removed fully or partly)
Cervical cancer is medically known as 'malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri'. It is often associated with bleeding from the vagina. It is caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The symptoms include vaginal bleeding, pain during coitus, vaginal discharge, and also similar symptoms in the abdomen and lungs (in advanced stages). Other symptoms include loss of appetite and weight, tiredness, pain in the pelvic region, back and legs, swollen limbs and leakage of urine and (or) other solid discharge substances from the vagina.
It is accentuated by smoking, HIV, infection of the Chlamydia, hormonal contraception and multiple pregnancies. For stages IA, IA2, IB1 and IIA surgery has to be performed which includes partial or complete removal of the affected organ or area.
Cervical cancer can be prevented by avoiding smoking, using condoms, and supplementing the diet by eating fruits & vegetables which contain Vitamins A, C, E, Folic acids, Carotenoids, CoQ10 and Fish oils.
Prostrate Cancer is usually associated with urination at regular intervals (esp. at night), blood in the urine and painful urine, erectile dsyfunctioning and pain during ejaculation.
It can be caused due to the genetic constitution of the man, diet, his exposure to medicine, polygamous partners or, due to a virus known as the Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (XMRV).
A patient detected with prostrate cancer will have to undergo Digital rectal examination and Prostrate Specific Antigen (PSA) test before undergoing surgery. However, the doctor's opinion is of utmost importance during diagnosis.
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(In US $)
(In US $)
|1) Chemotherapy (Category A) Total 6 cycles 15 days interval
||5 days cycle
|2) Chemotherapy (Category B) Total 6 cycles 15 days interval
||2 days cycle
|3) Chemotherapy (Category C) Total 6 cycles 15 days interval
||1 days cycle
|1) Palliative Radiation (Package for 2-3 weeks)
|2) Extended Palliative Radiation (Package for 3-4 weeks)
|3) Simple Curative Radiation (Multiple sites-Package for 6-8 weeks)
|4) Complex Curative Radiation (Package for 6-8 weeks)
|5) Chemotharapy / Dose
|5) Whole Body PET-CT Scan
|Stereotactic Radiotherapy & Stereotactic Radiosurgery
|1) SRT (Package upto 4-7 weeks)
|2) SRS (Malignant)
|1) Breast Cancer
|2) Oral Cavity
|3) Prostate Cancer
|Note : Above Prices do not include Chemo Drugs
- Prices are subject to change or withdrawal without notice.
- These are indicative prices only and may vary depending on the conditon of the patient, at the time of admission.
- Apollo will provide final estimates at the time of patient's admission.
- Single room is well furnished with Bed, Sofa-cum-Bed for Companion, Cupboard, Medicine Drawer, TV, Telephone and
Wi-fi facility for Internet access. Mobile phones are available on request.
- Stay and food for one Companion with patient in a Single Room is included in the above packages.
- Services like Mobile, Laundry etc. will be charged extra.
- Post-stay outside the Hospital is at the personal expense of the patient and is not included in the above prices.
- 1 US $ = INR 45
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